“BOYAR” на українській мові



But large landowners, the boyar aristocracy, retained 60 per cent of the land while 30 per cent of the peasants' plots were under two hectares in size.

the rise of the boyar class

Thus, the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were years of struggle to keep Ukrainian lands from Poland, Hungary, and Lithuania, as well as free of the boyars or noblemen who tried to take control.

He ruled in an increasingly arbitrary and absolutist fashion, brutalizing the aristocratic boyars in a decade-long period of terror known as the oprichnina.

From the 15th to the 17th centuries Muscovite boyars formed a closed aristocratic class drawn from about 200 families.